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Migrating to v5

Track and review changes to the Bootstrap source files, documentation, and components to help you migrate from v4 to v5.

v5.0.0-beta1

RTL

The RTL feature is still experimental and will probably evolve according to user feedback. Spotted something or have an improvement to suggest? Open an issue, we’d love to get your insights.

Sass

Horizontal direction sensitive variables, utilities and mixins are renamed with more logical names — start and end in lieu of left and right.

Components
  • Renamed .dropleft and .dropright to .dropstart and dropend.
  • Renamed .dropdown-menu-*-left and .dropdown-menu-*-right to .dropdown-menu-*-start and .dropdown-menu-*-end.
  • Renamed .bs-popover-left and .bs-popover-right to .bs-popover-start and .bs-popover-end.
  • Renamed .bs-tooltip-left and .bs-tooltip-right to .bs-tooltip-start and .bs-tooltip-end.
  • Renamed .carousel-item-left and .carousel-item-right to .carousel-item-start and .carousel-item-end.
Utilities
  • Renamed .left-* and .right-* to .start-* and .end-*.
  • Renamed .float-left and .float-right to .float-start and .float-end.
  • Renamed .border-left and .border-right to .border-start and .border-end.
  • Renamed .rounded-left and .rounded-right to .rounded-start and .rounded-end.
  • Renamed .ml-* and .mr-* to .ms-* and .me-*.
  • Renamed .pl-* and .pr-* to .ps-* and .pe-*.
  • Renamed .text-left and .text-right to .text-start and .text-end.

Breakpoints specific variants are consequently renamed too (eg. .text-md-start replaces .text-md-left).

Mixins
  • Renamed border-left-radius() and border-right-radius() to border-start-radius() and border-end-radius() — as well as their corner relative variants (eg. .border-bottom-left-radius became .border-bottom-start-radius).
  • Renamed caret-left() and caret-right() to caret-start() and caret-end() — subsequently, the caret() mixin now takes start and end as arguments instead of left and right.
Variables
  • New $breadcrumb-divider-flipped if a different breadcrumb separator is needed in RTL.
  • Renamed $navbar-brand-margin-right to $navbar-brand-margin-end.
  • Renamed $pagination-margin-left to $pagination-margin-start.
  • Renamed $form-check-padding-left to $form-check-padding-start.
  • Renamed $form-switch-padding-left to $form-switch-padding-start.
  • Renamed $form-check-inline-margin-right to $form-check-inline-margin-end.
  • Renamed $form-select-feedback-icon-padding-right to $form-select-feedback-icon-padding-end.

JavaScript

  • Data attributes for all JavaScript plugins are now namespaced to help distinguish Bootstrap functionality from third parties and your own code. For example, we use data-bs-toggle instead of data-toggle.
  • Updated Popper to v2.x:
    • Removed offset option from our Tooltip/Popover and Dropdown plugins; this can still be achieved using the popperConfig parameter.
    • The fallbackPlacement option has become fallbackPlacements.

Sass

  • Renamed scale-color() function to shift-color() to avoid collision with Sass’s own color scaling function.

Utilities

  • Added new .translate-middle-x & .translate-middle-y utilities to horizontally or vertically center absolute/fixed positioned elements.

Components

  • Simplified the default appearance of breadcrumbs by removing padding, background-color, and border-radius.
  • Added new CSS custom property --bs-breadcrumb-divider for easy customization without needing to recompile CSS.

Toasts

v5.0.0-alpha3

Browser support

  • Dropped support for Microsoft Edge Legacy. See here for the previous browser support changes.

Sass

  • The color system which worked with color-level() and $theme-color-interval was removed in favor of a new color system. All lighten() and darken() functions in our codebase are replaced by tint-color() and shade-color(). These functions will mix the color with either white or black instead of changing its lightness by a fixed amount. The scale-color() (changed to shift-color() in Beta 1) will either tint or shade a color depending on whether its weight parameter is positive or negative. See #30622 for more details.
  • Spinners now honor prefers-reduced-motion: reduce by slowing down animations. See #31882.

Reboot

  • Introduce $enable-smooth-scroll, which applies scroll-behavior: smooth globally—except for users asking for reduced motion through prefers-reduced-motion media query. See #31877

Buttons

Forms

Utilities

  • Text utilities:
    • Added .fs-* utilities for font-size utilities (with RFS enabled). These use the same scale as HTML’s default headings (1-6, large to small), and can be modified via Sass map.
    • Renamed .font-weight-* utilities as .fw-* for brevity and consistency.
    • Renamed .font-style-* utilities as .fst-* for brevity and consistency.
  • Added .d-grid to display utilities
  • Added new gap utilities (.gap) for CSS Grid layouts

v5.0.0-alpha2

Sass

  • Added default parameters to each border-radius mixin. See #31571.
  • Updated the next breakpoint when targeting only the xs breakpoint. See #31500.
  • box-shadow mixins now allow null values and drop none from multiple arguments. See #30394.

Docs

  • Renamed “Navs” page to “Navs & Tabs”
  • Renamed “Screen readers” helper page to “Visually hidden”, and filename to visually-hidden
  • Renamed “Checks” page to “Checks & radios”, and filename to checks-radios
  • Improved documentation of check/radio powered button groups
  • Improved skip links in our docs.
  • Redesigned docs navigation for larger tap targets on mobile and a streamlined subnav.
  • #31114: Improved form documentation with regards to accessibility.

Layout

  • Container horizontal padding updated to match the gutter size of .rows.
  • #31439: Removed flex: 1 0 100% from rows due to regressions in grid behavior.

Reboot

  • Updated th styling to use a default null value for font-weight and inherit text-align instead of setting explicitly.

Colors

  • Bumped color contrast ratio from 3:1 to 4.5:1.
  • Set $black as color contrast color instead of $gray-900.
  • Improved $green (and its theme alias $success) color to reach a new minimum color contrast (moving from #28a745 to #198754).
  • Improved $cyan (and its theme alias $info) color to be more vibrant (moving from #17a2b8 to #0dcaf0).

Forms

  • #31383: Resized checks and radios to be 1em instead of 1.25em in an effort to make them scale better with custom $font-size-base values and more.

Components

Badges

  • #31132: Increased default padding for badges from .25em/.5em to .35em/.65em.

Buttons

  • #30639: Disabled states of buttons are easier to customize thanks to additional arguments in the button-variant() mixin.
  • #30989: Updated buttons to ensure increased contrast on hover and active states.
  • Replaced chevron icons for carousel controls with new SVGs from Bootstrap Icons.
  • Added new .carousel-dark variant for dark text, controls, and indicators (great for lighter backgrounds).

Close button

  • Renamed .close to .btn-close for a less generic name.
  • Close buttons now use a background-image (embedded SVG) instead of a × in the HTML, allowing for easier customization without the need to touch your markup.
  • Added new variables to better control the customization.
  • Added new .btn-close-white variant that uses filter: invert(1) to enable higher contrast dismiss icons against darker backgrounds.

Collapse

  • #31346: Removed scroll anchoring for accordions.
  • Added new .dropdown-menu-dark variant and associated variables for on-demand dark dropdowns.
  • Added new variable for $dropdown-padding-x.
  • Darkened the dropdown divider for improved contrast.
  • #31035: Added new null variables for font-size, font-weight, color, and :hover color to the .nav-link class.

Pagination

  • Added transitions to pagination links. See #31396.

Popovers

  • Renamed whiteList option to allowList.

Toasts

  • #31109: Made default toast duration 5 seconds.
  • #31155: Clear timeout before showing toasts.
  • #31381: Removed overflow: hidden from toasts and replaced with proper border-radiuss with calc() functions.
  • Updated docs to include additional examples for how to customize and theme toasts.

Tooltips

  • Renamed whiteList option to allowList.

Helpers

  • Responsive embed helpers have been renamed to ratio helpers with new class names and improved behaviors, as well as a helpful CSS variable.
    • Classes have been renamed to change by to x in the aspect ratio. For example, .ratio-16by9 is now .ratio-16x9.
    • We’ve dropped the .embed-responsive-item and element group selector in favor of a simpler .ratio > * selector. No more class is needed, and the ratio helper now works with any HTML element.
    • The $embed-responsive-aspect-ratios Sass map has been renamed to $aspect-ratios and its values have been simplified to include the class name and the percentage as the key: value pair.
    • CSS variables are now generated and included for each value in the Sass map. Modify the --aspect-ratio variable on the .ratio to create any custom aspect ratio.
  • “Screen reader” classes are now “visually hidden” classes.
    • Changed the Sass file from scss/helpers/_screenreaders.scss to scss/helpers/_visually-hidden.scss
    • Renamed .sr-only and .sr-only-focusable to .visually-hidden and .visually-hidden-focusable
    • Renamed sr-only() and sr-only-focusable() mixins to visually-hidden() and visually-hidden-focusable().

Utilities

  • #31280: Added new position utilities for top, right, bottom, and left. Values include 0, 50%, and 100% for each property.
    • We also added new translate utilities to accompany those position utilities for centering elements when they’re being positioned.
    • Some great examples have been added to the docs to show these off.
  • #31484: Added new border-width utility.
  • #31473: The .d-none utility was moved in our CSS to give it more weight over other display utilities.
  • Renamed .text-monospace to .font-monospace.
  • Removed .text-hide as it’s an antiquated method for hiding text that shouldn’t be used anymore.
  • New line-height utilities: .lh-1, .lh-sm, .lh-base and .lh-lg. See here.

v5.0.0-alpha1

Browser support

See the browser and devices page for details on what is currently supported in Bootstrap 5. Since v4, here’s what’s changed to our browser support:

  • Dropped support for Internet Explorer 10 and 11
  • Dropped support for Microsoft Edge < 16
  • Dropped support for Firefox < 60
  • Dropped support for Safari < 10
  • Dropped support for iOS Safari < 10
  • Dropped support for Chrome < 60
  • Dropped support for Android < 6

Sass

Changes to our source Sass files and compiled CSS.

  • Removed hover, hover-focus, plain-hover-focus, and hover-focus-active mixins. Use regular CSS syntax for these moving forward. See #28267.
  • Remove previously deprecated mixins
    • float()
    • form-control-mixin()
    • nav-divider()
    • retina-img()
    • text-hide() (also dropped the associated utility class, .text-hide)
    • visibility()
    • form-control-focus()
  • Rearranged forms source files under scss/forms/. See Forms section for more details.
  • Removed print styles and $enable-print-styles variable. Print display classes, however, have remained intact. See #28339.
  • Dropped color(), theme-color() & gray() functions in favor of variables. See #29083
  • The theme-color-level() function is renamed to color-level() and now accepts any color you want instead of only $theme-color colors. See #29083 Watch out: color-level() was later on dropped in v5.0.0-alpha3.
  • $enable-grid-classes doesn’t disable the generation of container classes anymore See #29146
  • Renamed $enable-prefers-reduced-motion-media-query and $enable-pointer-cursor-for-buttons to $enable-reduced-motion and $enable-button-pointers for brevity.
  • Line heights are dropped from several components to simplify our codebase. The button-size() and pagination-size() do not accept line height parameters anymore. See #29271
  • The button-variant() mixin now accepts 3 optional color parameters, for each button state, to override the color provided by color-contrast(). By default, these parameters will find which color provides more contrast against the button state’s background color with color-contrast().
  • The button-outline-variant() mixin now accepts an additional argument, $active-color, for setting the button’s active state text color. By default, this parameter will find which color provides more contrast against the button’s active background color with color-contrast().
  • Ditch the Sass map merges, which makes it easier to remove redundant values. Keep in mind you now have to define all values in the Sass maps like $theme-colors. Check out how to deal with Sass maps.
  • color-yiq() function and related variables are renamed to color-contrast() since it’s not related to YIQ colorspace anymore. See #30168.
    • $yiq-contrasted-threshold is renamed to $min-contrast-ratio.
    • $yiq-text-dark and $yiq-text-light are respectively renamed to $color-contrast-dark and $color-contrast-light.
  • Linear gradients are simplified when gradients are enabled and therefore, gradient-bg() now only accepts an optional $color parameter.
  • The bg-gradient-variant() mixin is removed since the .bg-gradient class can now be used to add gradients to elements instead of the .bg-gradient-* classes.
  • The media-breakpoint-down() uses the breakpoint itself instead of the next breakpoint. Use media-breakpoint-down(lg) instead of media-breakpoint-down(md) to target viewports smaller than the lg breakpoint.
  • The media-breakpoint-between() mixin’s second parameter also uses the breakpoint itself instead of the next breakpoint. Use media-between(sm, lg) instead of media-breakpoint-between(sm, md) to target viewports between the sm and lg breakpoints.
  • The box-shadow() mixin now better supports none and null with multiple arguments. Now you can pass multiple arguments with either value and get the expected output. See #30394.
  • Each border-radius() mixin now has a default value. You can now call these mixins without specifying a border radius value and the $border-radius variable will be used. See #31571

JavaScript

Changes to our source and compiled JavaScript files.

  • Dropped jQuery dependency and rewrote plugins to be in regular JavaScript.
  • Removed underscore from public static methods like _getInstance()getInstance().

Color system

We’ve updated the color system that powers Bootstrap to improve color contrast and provide a much more extensive set of colors.

  • Updated blue and pink base colors (-500) to ensure WCAG 2.1 AA contrast.
  • Added new tints and shades for every color, providing nine separate colors for each base color, as new Sass variables.
  • To support our color system, we’ve added new custom tint-color() and shade-color() functions to mix our colors appropriately.

Grid and layout

Changes to any layout tools and our grid system.

  • Dropped the .media component as it can be built with utility classes. See #28265.
  • Remove position: relative from grid columns.
  • The horizontal padding is added to the direct children in a row instead of the columns themselves.
    • This simplifies our codebase.
    • The column classes can now be used stand-alone. Whenever they are used outside a .row, horizontal padding won’t be added.
  • The responsive gutter classes can be used to control the gutter width in horizontal, vertical or both directions.
  • The gutter width is now set in rem and decreased from 30px to 1.5rem (24px).
  • bootstrap-grid.css now only applies box-sizing: border-box to the column instead of resetting the global box-sizing. This way the grid system can be used, even if box-sizing: border-box is not applied to each element.

Content, Reboot, etc

Changes to Reboot, typography, tables, and more.

  • RFS enabled for automated font size rescaling. See #29152
  • Reset default horizontal padding-left on <ul> and <ol> elements from browser default 40px to 2rem.
  • Simplified table styles (no more odd top border) and tightened cell padding.
  • Nested tables do not inherit styles anymore.
  • .thead-light and .thead-dark are dropped in favor of the .table-* variant classes which can be used for all table elements (thead, tbody, tfoot, tr, th and td).
  • The table-row-variant() mixin is renamed to table-variant() and accepts only 2 parameters: $color (colon name) and $value (color code). The border color and accent colors are automatically calculated based on the table factor variables.
  • Split table cell padding variables into -y and -x.
  • Dropped .pre-scrollable class. See #29135
  • .text-* utilities do not add hover and focus states to links anymore. .link-* helper classes can be used instead. See #29267
  • Drop .text-justify class. See #29793

Typography

  • Removed $display-* variables for a new $display-font-sizes Sass map.
  • Removed individual $display-*-weight variables for a single $display-font-weight.
  • Added two new .display-* heading styles, .display-5 and .display-6.
  • Resized existing display headings for a slightly more consistent set of font-sizes.
  • Links are underlined by default (not just on hover), unless they’re part of specific components.

Forms

  • Rearranged form documentation under its own top-level section.
    • Split out old Forms page into several subpages
    • Moved input groups docs under the new Forms section
  • Rearranged source Sass files under scss/forms/, including moving over input group styles.
  • Combined native and custom checkboxes and radios into a single .form-check class.
    • New checks support sizing via em/font-size or explicit modifier classes now.
    • New checks now appear larger by default for improved usability.
    • Dropped .custom-control and associated classes.
    • Renamed most $custom-control variables to $form-control ones.
  • Combined native and custom selects into .form-select.
    • Dropped .custom-select and associated classes.
    • Renamed most $custom-select variables to $form-select ones.
  • Updated file input component with the same overall design, but improved HTML.
    • Refactored .form-file markup to resolve some visual bugs while allowing translation and button text changes via HTML instead of CSS.
    • Dropped native .form-control-file and .form-control-range components entirely.
    • Renamed .custom-file to .form-file (including variables). Watch out: .form-file was later on dropped in v5.0.0-alpha3, now you can use .form-control.
    • Added support for :focus and :disabled styles.
  • Renamed .custom-range to .form-range (including variables).
  • Dropped .form-group for margin utilities (we’ve replaced our docs examples with .mb-3).
  • Dropped .form-row for the more flexible grid gutters.
  • Dropped .form-inline for the more flexible grid.
  • Dropped support for .form-control-plaintext inside .input-groups.
  • Dropped .input-group-append and .input-group-prepend. You can now just add buttons and .input-group-text as direct children of the input groups.
  • Form labels now require the .form-label class. Sass variables are now available to style form labels to your needs. See #30476

Components

  • Unified padding values for alerts, breadcrumbs, cards, dropdowns, list groups, modals, popovers, and tooltips to be based on our $spacer variable. See #30564.

Disabled states

  • Disabled states of the buttons, close button, pagination link & form range now have pointer-events: none added. This simplifies our codebase and makes it easier to override active states in CSS. #29296.

Alerts

  • Removed auto-darkening of <hr> elements in .alert-* class variants. <hr>s use rgba() for their color, so these should naturally blend anyway.

Badges

Badges were overhauled to better differentiate themselves from buttons and to better utilize utility classes.

  • Removed and replaced .badge modifier classes with background utility classes (e.g., use .bg-primary instead of .badge-primary)
  • Removed .badge-pill for the .rounded-pill utility class
  • Removed badge’s hover and focus styles for a.badge and button.badge.

Buttons

  • The checkbox/radio toggle is removed from the button plugin in favor of a CSS only solution, which is documented in the form checks and radios docs. The .btn-check class can be added to inputs, any label with .btn and modifier class can be used to theme the labels. See #30650.

Cards

  • Removed the card columns in favor of a Masonry grid See #28922.
  • Removed card decks in favor of the grid which adds more flexibility over responsive behavior.

Jumbotron

  • The jumbotron component is removed in favor of utility classes like .bg-light for the background color and .p-* classes to control padding.
  • All navbars now require a container within. This drastically simplifies spacing requirements and removes the need for extensive CSS overrides we added for responsive containers in v4.

Pagination

  • Pagination links now have customizable margin-left that are dynamically rounded on all corners when separated from one another.

Popovers

  • Renamed .arrow to .popover-arrow

Tooltips

  • Renamed .arrow to .tooltip-arrow

Accessibility

  • Unlike the old .sr-only-focusable, which only worked in combination with .sr-only, .sr-only-focusable can be used as a standalone class without .sr-only. See #28720.

Utilities

Grid

  • Decreased the number of responsive order utilities per breakpoint. The highest order utility with a number now is .order-5 instead of .order-12. See #28874.

Misc

  • Added .bg-body for quickly setting the <body>’s background to additional elements.
  • Negative margin utilities are disabled by default. You can re-enable them by setting $enable-negative-margins: true, but keep in mind this can increase the file size quite a lot.

Docs

  • Removed “Wall of browser bugs” page because it has become obsolete
  • Switched from Jekyll to Hugo

Build tools

  • Updated all devDependencies
  • We support only the latest Node.js LTS releases which are 10 and 12 at the time of writing